An old strap line to describe dog behaviour - ‘Dominance’ needs to disappear.
There are really upsetting consequences of fear and pain based training of dogs, some of which may include:
An increase in fear and anxiety
Stress and inability to learn
Your dog will associate the punishment with something else and be confused
An increase in aggression towards its owner
Confusion to which behaviour is required from them for you
A risk of physical injury to your dog, other dogs, YOU and also the general public
For more information regarding this out of date theory please read this article
Leadership is important - just like being a parent. There to provide 24 hour care, guidance, direction, management, safety, to supervise, coach and promote harmony.
Here is a link to David Mec retracting his Alpha theory which he made over 40 years ago.
The faster we can all work together to help our dogs learn with no fear the better!