A lure - is a method of using a treat or toy to guide your dog into the position you would like to train gradually, you can then fade out the treat / toy lure and use the cue word taught or a hand signal instead.
A cue - is a word you add gradually to communicate to the dog for the action you are teaching / looking for them to take e.g. 'Sit'.
A marker - is a word that lets them know they got it right :) such as Good, Yes or a Click if you are using clicker training.
A reward - this pays them for a good job with praise, food or a toy and motivates them to keep going and do it again, these can be gradually faded out - or kept - or jack potted with many - its your choice and it depends on the behaviour / action you are teaching and the environment!
Food often works best.